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Monday, August 08, 2011

The Internet & way we remember information

While using the Internet it has often occurred to me that, on occasions, there are certain information that I choose how to access when required rather than actually remembering the information itself. For example, the other day, while Googling something, I came across an article. While it was interesting, I did not want to read it at that moment nor did I bother to remember the URL or tag it using Read it Later. Though I've yet to read the article, but almost a week later I still know how to access it:

  • Google the keyword that originally brought up the result
  • Go to the third page of the result
  • Click on the relevant URLs on that page
  • In the page that opens up, is the URL to the article I was interested in reading later

Sunday, August 07, 2011

Professor Dr. Daulat Singh Kothari - a doyen of Defence Research in India [Weekend Reading]

20110807-Daulat-Singh-Kothari-Defence-India-01Professor Dr. Daulat Singh Kothari was, arguably, one the most prominent individuals who played a critical role in setting up the infrastructures required for carrying out defence research & development in India. It was under his leadership that India set up the Defence Science Organisation [DSO], the precursor to the Defence Research & Development Organisation [DRDO]. The DRDO was later created by consolidating the various other defence labs being run under the jurisdiction of other administrative bodies. Thus, quite rightly, he is called the Architect of Defence Science in India.


The talk he had given as the then Scientific Advisor to the Defence Minister of India holds true & has become even more relevant in this day and age we live in,

Science and warfare have always profoundly influenced each other. This has grown with the growth of science itself and now modern warfare is completely dependent on applied science (-war has been described as applied science-1 and methods of precision mass manufacture which originated in the last few decades........

....In any country the standard and efficiency of weapons and equipment of its fighting services is, in the ultimate analysis, largely, if not entirely, determined by the technological and industrial potential of the country. Any marked disparity between them is neither possible, nor, if artificially sustained, can it survive for long.

Not only was he a well-regarded Scientists, but also his knowledge about religion and spirituality evoked great admiration & respect - a truly well-rounded, multi-faceted personality he was. His dedication to his work & persona has left a lasting impact on those who came in touch with him.

Saturday, August 06, 2011

How to remove highlight from a text image [replace one color with another]

For my previous post, I made use of an image which originally had highlighted text as seen below. While the content of the text was what I wanted, the highlighting itself was unnecessary. Thus, removing the highlighting would make the picture more suited for my needs.
Click the image to view a larger-sized picture

20110805-Eraser-PaintNet-06While it was possible to erase the highlight using the Eraser tool available in even the most basic photo-editing software, it would've made the task very tedious & time-consuming due to small space available to move the eraser around between two line of text. Moreover, there was always the risk of accidentally erasing a portion of the text in the picture, thereby rendering the picture useless for my needs.

Friday, August 05, 2011

a modest proposal from the Soviets...duly rejected by Indian Babudom

with all credit & due apologies to Peter Landesman for lifting & then twisting the title of one of his articles


While going through the stack of news in the inbox today yesterday morning, I came across an article, written by a Brazilian. The article called for getting Brazil's defence programs & industry up & going by hiring from among the number of highly trained American Scientists & Engineers.

Brazil will never find another opportunity like the one that is available today with NASA laying off thousands of highly qualified scientists and engineers who are specialized in the aerospace area and are ready to go to work immediately on these projects.

This kind of endeavor brings many benefits to the Brazilian economy such as high paying jobs, innovation, new technologies, and also shows that Brazil is serious about becoming one of the leading nations in the 21st century.

The fast development of a state-of-the-art defense and aerospace industry in Brazil has become a priority for Brazil to go up to the next level and become one of the leading nations in the 21st century.

With the recent closure of America's Space Shuttle program, a large number of them are expected to lose their employment. Thus, their experience & knowledge would be an invaluable addition to any Science & Technology program they choose to associate themselves with.

Wednesday, August 03, 2011

Polar & Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle [Infographic]

While going through Dr. B.N Suresh's presentation slides, came across these infographics about India's Satellite Launch Vehicles - the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle [PSLV] & the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle [GSLV].
Very neatly explains some of the aspects of the Launch Vehicles.

India's Space Shuttle [Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV)] program - some information

Dr. B.N. Suresh, then Director of the Vikram Sarabhai Space Center [VSSC] had made presentations where he spoke about India's Reusable Launch Vehicle program [India's Space Shuttle].
Posting the relevant presentation slides here for information.

Tuesday, August 02, 2011

America's Space Shuttle: 135 flights, 1 page [& India's own Shuttle program thrown in for good measure]

As the Space Shuttle Atlantis glided back & landed safely on Earth, it also brought down the curtains on NASA's three decade long flight of its Space Shuttles & its Space Shuttle program.
Since then a good number of articles have been written about the Space Shuttle program and its contribution towards advancing the cause of Space travel & research. Indeed, watching a shuttle launch every time on CNN, along with PSLV & GSLV launches, evoked an unparalleled feeling of excitement & exhilaration, besides providing that much needed inspiration.
This neatly compiled, interactive infographic prepared by the New York Times lists out all missions undertaken by each Shuttle, color-coding them to indicate the mission it was undertaking & highlighting important milestones achieved in the mission. The relative height of the marker indicate duration of the mission. Hover your mouse over a mission to view additional info & snapshot from the mission.

Friday, July 29, 2011

IPv6 made simple & easy. No,...not the transition [you wish!] The explanation

June 8 has been recognised as the World IPv6 day. The recognition of the significance of the day, though, is mostly restricted to individuals involved in the running & upkeep of the network & enterprises who depend on the Internet - cloud computing, web hosts, online services & their kind. Basically people working behind the scenes to ensure you experience an uninterrupted & uninterruptible Internet connection.

However, the continued growth & evolution of the Internet depends upon a successful, & desirably smooth, migration & adoption of the IPv6 standard. With each passing day, the footprint of our online activities & number of devices we use to go online are only increasing. The use [&, often, abuse] of the internet is steadily creeping into increasing aspects of our lives & our dependence on the Internet to get work done too is on a steady ascent. Thus, knowing about IPv6 [Internet Protocol version 6], even if a little bit, is critical for the continuation of our way of life useful.

A simple, easy-to-understand explanation of the IPv6 & its use has been illustrated in this infographic.

Click on the image to view a larger-sized image

Simple & easy explanation of IPv6 [Infographic]

via Focus

An infographic explaining the need to migrate to IPv6

Click on the image to view a larger-sized image

Why is there a need to migrate to IPv6 [Infographic]

via AT&T

IPv4 is being succeeded by IPv6...err, poor counting skills? what-evah happened to the IPv5?

Currently following the IPv4 standard, it would be logical to assume the one succeeding it would thus be termed IPv5. However, as we now know, it is IPv6 that is all set to take its place. No, it does not have anything to do with IPv5 being numerologically inauspicious or some such other mind-whacking, gobbledygook explanation.

The reason for this is because [not-so] long years ago, when we made a tryst with Internet, we had to formulate effective set of rules [protocols] for communicating with & over the Internet. Thus, as part of specifying such a set of rules, the Internet Stream Protocol was proposed. It was generally identified as ST. A later iteration of the protocol, ST-2 was also identified as Internet Protocol version 5, that shortens to IPv5.

As a result, when time came to name the successor to IPv4, in order to avoid confusion with ST-2 that was an unrelated protocol, the good folks at the Internet Engineering Task Force [IETF] decided to name theirs IPv6.

How is IPv6 important to the end-user [you, me, your neighbor's hawwwtt wife-kind of people] & what if the transition does not take place?

Transition has to take place & will take place. Continuing with IPv4 is not an option, unless growth of the Internet is to be capped - an impossibility, or some way is found to scale it up to match that of IPv6 without hampering its performance. However, no such method is currently available. Questions whose answers, however, are being debated is the manner in which the migration process is to be undertaken.

Comparison between IP address allocation capability in IPv4 & IPv6

image via: IPv6 with Henry Yu

Yet for the sake of argument, let us consider a hypothetical scenario where no such transition is to take place & people are to continue with the IPv4 standard currently in effect. As indicated in the infographic above, any 2 internet-enabled devices, in order to be able to communicate with one another, must have an IP address assigned to it, for identification, during that session of communication.

With the number of possible IP addresses that can be generated under IPv4 reaching its limits, a situation would arise in the not so distant future when a device that wishes to connect to the Internet finds that its ISP does not have any IP address left to allocate to it [dynamically assigned IP addresses, a practise itself borne out of the need to make effective use of IP addresses & avoid surplus capacity]. Thus with no IP address available, the device would therefore be unable to log on to the Internet - BUMMER!! Workarounds deployed even now to prolong use of IPv4 are known to render number of Internet services unusable.

4,29,49,67,296 [~4.3 billion] IP addresses can be generated (232) following in the IPv4 standard & they have been estimated to be used up by within a year from now.

IPv6, on the other hand, can generate 3,40,28,23,66,92,09,38,46,33,74,60,74,31,76,82,11,456 unique IP addresses 2128 [~340 trillion trillion trillion or 340 Undecillion - a number so large, even Microsoft can't comprehend it - Live Writer marks Undecillion as a typo] - enough for handling the estimated increase in Internet usage.

Related: IPv4 address exhaustion

What is IPv6 - an explanation

Also watch: World Tests IPv6: Why 4.2 Billion Internet Addresses Just Weren't Enough

Cool. So lets all jump into the IPv6 bandwagon then. What's the problem?

The simplest & the most important reason - *cost*. Enterprises migrating to the IPv6 standard would have to undertake acquisition & setting up a whole new set of software platform & network hardware infrastructure, including DNS servers, capable of handling Internet traffic through IPv6. The cost of such an undertaking would quite easily run upwards of multi-millions of American dollars [not Zimbabwean], depending on the scale of operation. Say an enterprise does setup its IPv6 infrastructure and is all ready to connect to the internet an go about its business as before. But can it? Barely. This is because while it itself migrated to IPv6, other networks with which it had been communicating have not yet done so, possibly owing to the costs incurred. An IPv6-based network can only communicate with other IPv6-based networks. It has not been designed to communicate with an IPv4 network.

In order to overcome this "oversight", new instruction-sets have been devised to get them to talk to each other. However using such an interface increases latency, besides degrading the performance. Thus in order to ensure optimal performance while communicating with an IPv4 network, the enterprise that had migrated to IPv6 may just decide to retain its earlier IPv4 infrastructure & operate it alongside when the need arises - thereby essentially doubling cost of operation - now why would anybody want to be an early adopter?

Errr...okay then, but how do I know if my ISP is an early adopter and supports IPv6?

If you can open Google's IPv6 site, you are good to go:

India, meanwhile has set itself a target of March 2012 for a full roll-out of IPv6.

The National internet Exchange of India [NIXI] is setting up the required infrastructure & conducting training to enable & help adoption of the IPv6 standard - details.

On a related note, check out this inforgraphic prepared by Cisco titled, "The Internet of Things"

Infographic - growing expanse of the Internet

A data from the infographic,

By the end of 2011, 20 typical [American] households will generate more Internet traffic than the entire Internet in 2008

I've added the words inside the parentheses.


Wednesday, July 27, 2011

Indian Navy & Air Force's MiG-29 aircrafts [hi-res photographs]

A collection of hi-resolution pictures of the variants of the MiG-29 aircrafts in operation with the Indian Navy & Indian Air Force.

The Indian Air Force [IAF] has been operation the MiG-29 aircrafts since the mid-80s, a purchase decision made in response to the Pakistan Air Force receiving, from the U.S, Lockheed Martin's F-16 multi-role combat aircraft [variants of which, received in the 90s, bore an uncanny resemblance to soybeans - shape-shifting technology anyone?!].

The Indian Navy [IN], on the other hand, has contracted RAC MiG to acquire 45 of these aircrafts for operating off its long delayed, not yet inducted Aircraft Carrier, INS Vikramaditya [formerly an Aircraft Cruiser Admiral Gorshkov, renamed from its original name Baku]. Hopefully no subsequent Aircraft Carrier it plans to build and operate [IAC-1&2] would carry them as the sole aircraft - successful induction of the Naval version of the Light Combat Aircraft [LCA] could see them operating in a hi-lo configuration alongside the MiG-29s.

The Indian Navy's MiG-29 are designated MiG-29K [single-seat] & MiG-29KUB [twin seat]

click on the thumbnails to view larger-sized pictures

20110727-Indian-Navy-MiG-29-K-MiG-29-KUB-01 20110727-Indian-Navy-MiG-29-K-MiG-29-KUB-09
20110727-Indian-Navy-MiG-29-K-MiG-29-KUB-04-TN 20110727-Indian-Navy-MiG-29-K-MiG-29-KUB-11
20110727-Indian-Navy-MiG-29-K-MiG-29-KUB-10 20110727-Indian-Navy-MiG-29-K-MiG-29-KUB-02-TN
20110727-Indian-Navy-MiG-29-K-MiG-29-KUB-03-TN 20110727-Indian-Navy-MiG-29-K-MiG-29-KUB-08
20110727-Indian-Navy-MiG-29-K-MiG-29-KUB-13-TN 20110727-Indian-Navy-MiG-29-K-MiG-29-KUB-12
20110727-Indian-Navy-MiG-29-K-MiG-29-KUB-06-TN 20110727-Indian-Navy-MiG-29-K-MiG-29-KUB-07-TN

IAF has been operating the MiG-29 [single-seat] & the MiG-29 UB [twin-seater aircraft]. As part of an agreement signed between Indian & Russia, IAF's entire fleet of MiG-29s would be upgraded to match the standards & capabilities of the latest variant of the MiG-29, the MiG-29 SMT. The upgraded aircraft would be designated MiG-29UPG [single-seat] & MiG-29UPG UB [twin-seater].

click on the thumbnails to view larger-sized pictures

20110727-Indian-Air-Force-MiG-29-UPG-01 20110727-Indian-Air-Force-MiG-29-UPG-04
20110727-Indian-Air-Force-MiG-29-UPG-06 20110727-Indian-Air-Force-MiG-29-UPG-03
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20110727-Indian-Air-Force-MiG-29-UPG-07 20110727-Indian-Air-Force-MiG-29-UPG-09

via: || || || || || || ||

Also: Indian Navy MiG - 29K aircraft wallpapers

Uploaded a lecture where the Director of the Aeronautical Development Agency [ADA] spoke about technologies & features that are to become part of future airborne combat systems & the challenges that designers face in realising these technologies - Future Air Combat Systems - Technologies, Features & Challenges


Monday, July 25, 2011

On-Condition Maintenance of Aircrafts: An overview

Had been reading about the On-Condition Maintenance process over the weekend, since last week. Having read a fair amount of content, thought of putting what I've learnt and understood in writing, in order to consolidate what I've read about it. As my folks say, writing down what has been learnt improves learning & understanding.

Sunday, July 24, 2011

On-Condition Maintenance of Aircrafts: An overview 04 of 04

Previous: Part 01 - Part 02 - Part 03 - Acronyms
How to determine the point of replacement of component that is under On-Condition Maintenance?
The concept of P-F curve or degradation curve is used to determine the point of failure and thus before it, the point at which the component must be replaced as part of the On-Condition Maintenance process. The P-F portion of the curve indicates when a potential failure is first visible to us [potential failure point 'P'] and the operating condition where the equipment is rendered unusable due to its performance having degraded to unacceptable levels [functional failure point 'F'].

On-Condition Maintenance of Aircrafts: An overview 03 of 04

Previous: Part 01 - Part 02 - Acronyms
Time duration specified by the Dutch Civil Aviation authorities for performing monitoring & inspection as part of an On-Condition Maintenance programmes of some critical components are as follows:

On-Condition Maintenance of Aircrafts: An overview 02 of 04

Previous: Part 01 - Acronyms
However, as stated earlier, maintenance of not all systems and components can be transitioned to the On-Condition Maintenance standard. According to the Maintenance Directive NL-2010-001 issued by the Civil Aviation Authority of the Netherlands [CAA-NL] some components that may not be maintained by OCM are,

On-Condition Maintenance of Aircrafts: An overview 01 of 04

The Indian Air Force [IAF] is currently in the process of imparting a Mid Life Upgrade [MLU] to its entire fleet of the Russian origin MiG-29 multi-role combat aircraft. Included in the technology & capability upgrades being incorporated into the aircrafts, is the transition towards performing on-condition maintenance of the aircrafts from the traditional hard-time maintenance procedures currently being followed on the fleet.
Traditionally, life of aircraft components & their subsequent replacement have been specified in terms of Time Between Overhaul [TBO]. Such practice entails that the component in question be replaced or overhauled irrespective of their present state of performance & physical condition at that moment.

Monday, July 04, 2011

India's former Main Battle Tank [MBT] Vijayanta at Avadi [Photographs]

Found these pictures of the Main Battle Tank, Vijayanta, earlier in service with the Indian Army. These are licensed manufactured British Vickers Tanks that were later successfully adapted for use in varied configurations as Bridge laying, Armoured Recovery Vehicle etc. Successful demonstration involving incorporation of a more powerful & reliable power-plant & up-gunning its main gun to a higher caliber were also made, but did not find a favorable response from the end-user.

They were to be withdrawn from service by 2008. Counted four of them at my place, being used as monuments outside defence establishments - quite imposing, they look.

The Heavy Vehicles Factory [HVF] in Avadi [an acronym for Armoured Vehicles and Ammunition Depot of India], Tamil Nadu currently houses the country's only assembly line needed for putting together battle tanks in service with the Indian Army.

Click on the thumbnails to view larger-sized images

Main Battle Tank [MBT] Vijayanta [Vickers derivative] at Avadi factory Main Battle Tank [MBT] Vijayanta [Vickers derivative] at Avadi factory
Main Battle Tank [MBT] Vijayanta [Vickers derivative] at Avadi factory Main Battle Tank [MBT] Vijayanta [Vickers derivative] at Avadi factory



Friday, July 01, 2011

Create a shortened URL without signing in or signing up

Had been using the URL shortner bookmarklet for long for posting to Twitter. Recently  discovered that the bookmarklet was no longer doing so & was instead creating shortened URLs, both URL shortening services being run by the same enterprise. From now onwards, in order to create a URL, one has to sign in into the service & only then would it be possible to do so - *hate* signing in anywhere & avoid it as far as possible.

Turns out, as of the time of posting, & URLs are inter-changeable, i.e, if you had created a shortened URL, then it is possible to shave off 2 more characters by simply replacing the by without any change in result. Critical, if one posts on twitter, where character real-estate is a premium. However, with growing number of URLs being shortened with their service, it may be just happen that they decide to turn & URLs unique. Until that time, no signing-in required to create a shortened URL.


Original shortened URL:

a URL created by replacing the


Was looking up something, when I came across this site still hosted on Geocities. Ran a Google search query & found out, as the URLs above indicated, around 60,000+ sites continue to remain hosted on Geocities. This does not count their service in Japan, which they continue to run. However, considering the fact that Yahoo! was supposed to have shutdown, it was indeed surprising to find these pages still there. Will try searching around for an answer. Some kind soul could cut short my work & save me some time by posting the answer, in the comments below, though.